There is no mistaking my love for rifles, all things rifles. I started pushing the standard issue M4/AR15 out at distance way back in the day. It was important I learn how to exploit distance to my advantage, being able to reach out and touch people. It didn’t take long to figure out I would need to adapt my gear to better exploit this capability. Relying on gear alone is a mistake, fundamental skills become even more important as we extend the ranges. The dirty little secret folks don’t discuss has to do with weight. The heavier the rifle, the harder it will be able to hit at distance when not in a prone position. So, the goal becomes finding a balance between your mission and your ability.
Choosing The Rifle
It all starts with the rifle and we are not talking about a high end match grade rifle. We are talking your general purpose rifle from a reputable manufacture that values, reliability first, accuracy second. These rifles will be more than adequate. It is easy to pursue extreme capabilities from your gear, but they move you out of a generalist and into a specialist. Our goal is to stay within the realm of being a generalist and do it better. I get asked the question all the time, how accurate should my rifle be when looking at distance. It makes sense to consider the capability of the rifle, but it’s your ability that matters. If you have a rifle capable of 2MOA that to me is plenty good. Theoretically you would see a 10″ group spread at 500 yards; which is probably the extreme distance for a GP rifle. What really matters is the barrel length and weight. I recommend 14.5″ with permanently attached flash hider or 16″ at a minimum. Rifle weight naked should be around the 5.5lb mark.
Aftermarket Additions to Consider
Things you can do to accurize the rifle begin with the trigger. Investing in a good aftermarket two stage trigger that allows for precision at distance and performance at close range. Hands down, this is the most important thing you can do to the rifle. Ammunition and optics come later. The next piece of gear is an adjustable sling, usually a two point design. These slings allow for improvised support position when stability is necessary, but traditional support unavailable. They can also be used to improve stable shooting positions and important for any rifle use in general. I go back and forth with a quick detach lightweight bi-pod. On my standard issue AR15 I carried one and it was great, but it added weight. So, for all the traditional roles, I was carrying extra weight. When I needed it though, it was awesome! For all your prone zeroing and range familiarizations I recommend them. Lastly, a smaller capacity magazine. I know this seems counter-intuitive, but it is helpful for when zeroing since it allows you to get a lower prone position.
The Optic, Dot or Scope
The second most asked question has to do with optics or scopes. This is your training so use what you feel comfortable with or can afford. We’ve had people come through this class with both red dot sights (RDS) and low powered variable optics (LPVO). They discover the limitations in each and either work within them or move to another option as a result. The bottom line, define your mission. If this is a general purpose rifle designed to fulfill multiple roles then consider both of these options and realize they each have pro’s & con’s. From an entry level point, RDS will be cheaper and lighter. The biggest con is as distance increases their performance decreases. We see performance drop off around the 300yd. line. That is not to say a good rifleman cannot get the job done further, it means it is harder. If you are going to go down the RDS road get the smallest dot available, usually around 2MOA. Consider adding a magnifier, while not the same as an LPVO it really gives you options. I love magnifiers and at times will use them as a monocular if not on my rifle. With a 3x magnifier, you have the possibility of extending the range to maybe the 500yd. On the flip side, a good LPVO is going to cost you. Generally, starting at about twice as much as an RDS.
Closer Look at LPVO’s
I could spend hours talking about LPVO’s, but here are some simple tips. First, figure out how much you are willing to spend. I mean, really figure out your budget. Most top end manufactures will make something starting out at the $1,000-1,500 range. From there, you are off to the races. The more premium the features, the higher the cost. Should you go with a first or second focal plane? I suggest first focal plane for this mission. Realize though going with a first focal plane will generally be more costly. I have both, but prefer first focal plane for this mission, particularly with the need to be fast at close range. I suggest a technical reticle if available, but an improved duplex reticle will get the job done. The most important thing to remember is learn your reticule, understand how to use all the features. With the popularity of scopes in Milliradian or Minute of Angle it would seem hard to choose, but Mil scopes are increasing in popularity. My only recommendation is to ensure your reticle and turrets are the same. Meaning, avoid a scope with a MOA reticle and Mil turrets. Trust me, you don’t want to do any extra math. Because we need this LPVO to do work at close range you need to strongly consider how good the red dot feature is of the make/model. Let’s face it, the likelihood you will be legally and morally justified in taking a shot greater than 100yds. is all but wishful thinking. But, using the rifle inside the 25yd. is way more likely. Using the red dot as your primary, then dialing in magnification is more the norm. Both the size of the dot and brightness need to be considered. Realize, it will do a good job, but at the end of the day it is not a RDS. While training can help close the gap, the gap will still exist. The real question is how much magnification. Again, this is tied to dollars and ounces. The more magnification, the more expensive. The more magnification the heavier the scope. There is a new breed of 1×8’s that are doing great and pretty light compared to other comparable options. I consider length a close third, but I’m flexible with this feature. There are other features to consider and probably the biggest is do you go with capped or exposed turrets. Given the mission of this scope it is far more likely you will be using holds to engage targets at distance and unknown ranges. But, dialing up will still be more precise so it really depends on your preference. I do recommend some type of zero stop. Throw levers are another nice feature to aide in adjusting magnification. Lastly is how precise the corrections. Again, this is tied to dollars so the more precise, the pricer the optic. At a minimum I would go with 0.2mil or ½MOA.
Feeding Your Rifle
Ammunition is another subject we could spend hours discussing. The hard part is finding good ammunition in sufficient quantities. In our classes, you can expect to shoot somewhere between 500-750 depending on your skill. On rare occasions we get close to 1,000 rounds. The biggest consideration is bullet weight when attempting to reach further ranges. I prefer the 77gr. projectiles for the simple fact they do better in high wind conditions. Not to mention they appear to have really nice terminal performance. I don’t much care what brand you go with, but if you are going with a 77gr. projectile it will probably be of some open tip match type or OTM. Trust me, selecting a high quality round will make a huge difference. I occasionally get asked if we allow other calibers than 5.56mm. The answer is of course as long as it will not damage our steel targets we are game. I’ve seen 5.56mm, 6.8SPC, 7.62x39mm (poorest performer) and 7.62x51mm. If I was being honest, the 6.8SPC has done the best, but the cost and availability are the wild card. Whatever round you choose to go with consider purchasing twice the round count. This will give you plenty of ammunition for the class, then plenty for your continued professional development. Along with having a decent chance being close if not part of the same lot. You don’t have to shoot these high dollar rounds for the entire class. You can bring FMJ ammunition, but just realize you will be staring out behind the power curve. I suggest at a minimum 50% of the OTM type, then the remaining of the FMJ type. This will ensure you have plenty of OTM ammunition to zero and familiarize at the different known ranges. Then use the FMJ for all close in work where precision is less of an issue. One thing I strongly suggest is knowing the muzzle velocity for your rifle with the preferred ammunition. While manufactures will provide the tested muzzle velocity it is unlikely it will match your rifle, the most obvious being barrel length. There are some decent online references to help narrow it down. In a pinch, you can use as a rough estimate of a 25fps decrease of for every inch decrease in barrel length. The last thing to consider if you bring different ammunition is the shift in point of impact. Know where each projectile will impact at certain distances. If you use FMJ for the close range drills be familiar with the shift in point of impact. They can be marginal and depending on the target demand have little impact.
Math is Hard, Calculators Help
While not mandatory, a ballistic calculator or application is strongly suggested. There are a couple of good ones and I’ve been using iSnipe for over a decade. What these apps allow you to do is develop a more precise understanding of your rifle’s characteristics with all the variable you will face. Being able to exploit the information to better understand your maximum point blank range is integral part of being a rifleman. Because we are looking at a 300yd. and in learning your holds is important. Luckily they are not too extreme and a good technical reticle will be hugely valuable. If any variable changes you can see how severe the change will affect your ballistics. Whenever I travel to a new location the first thing I do is input the conditions to see how much it affects my zero. With my rifle zeroed and confirmed at home I can get insight into how the new conditions will affect my performance. In particular is the maximum point blank range. I’ve learned that some locations have had little impact on my PBR, while others I had to re-zero to ensure the best performance.
As you get ready for the upcoming class or just want to better exploit your rifle consider the information outlined in this article. It all starts with a reliable and accurate rifle. A 2MOA capability is plenty, it will always rest with the shooter’s marksmanship. From there consider aftermarket accessories to improve precision such as drop in triggers and good slings. Decide whether to use a RDS or LPVO and which ever one you use opt for the smallest dot for day time or close range shooting. If you are going to invest in an LPVO make sure you understand all the features available and make sure they meet your needs so you are not paying for something you don’t need. Ammunition will be your next biggest investment and invest you should. Go with the heavier bullets of an open tip match design. Then purchase as much as you can afford. Keep the surplus in a cool dry place and confirm your zero every chance you get. Start playing with ballistic calculators to become more familiar with ambient conditions that can adversely affect your performance. At the end of the day, shooting at distance is costly. I find being able to hit at extended distances a huge asset and I’m willing to pay the toll. Hopefully you will find the same satisfaction I feel when pushing myself and gear to the extreme.